[20a - 29 lines; 20b - 43 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 20b [line 28[:
The word "v'Sachteha Chulin Teme'in" ותחתיה חולין טמאין
should be "uva'Tachtonah Chulin Teme'in" ובתחתונה חולין טמאין (Dikdukei Sofrim #5; this is the Girsa in the Oxford Manuscript.)
1)[line 2]והבשר טמאVEHA'BASAR TAMEI- The Gemara refers back to the Mishnah in Eduyos cited at the end of 19a, and continues to explain it.
2)[line 3]דאיתכשר במאיD'ISKASHER B'MAI (HECHSHER OCHLIN)
(a)Food becomes Tamei when it comes into contact with a source of Tum'ah — but only if it first comes into contact with one of the seven liquids which enable food to become Tamei. From then on, even after it dries, it can still become Tamei. The seven liquids which enable food to become Tamei are: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey. Wetting foods in a manner which enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher."
(b)Food can only become Tamei if the owner of the food is pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse (Vayikra 11:38), "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei." The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, like the word "Yiten" — "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" — "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food, as it is when he himself applies them.
(c)It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. Therefore, even if the owner desired the liquid for an entirely different purpose and only at a later point did it come into contact with food, that liquid will enable the food to become Tamei. If, however, the owner intended to dispose of the liquid, then it will not enable the food to become Tamei, for such a liquid is not considered valuable.
3)[line 11]חיבת הקודשCHIBAS HA'KODESH
(a)Due to the fact that Kodesh is particularly precious, it is more sensitive than Chulin or Terumah. For this reason, Kodesh can become Tamei even if it has never come in contact with a liquid and was not Huchshar.
(b)Another way in which Chibas ha'Kodesh is expressed is that Kodesh items which are inedible (such as wood and Levonah (frankincense) designated to be burned on the Mizbe'ach) can become Tamei as if they were food items.
(c)According to RASHI (19a DH Alma), that which wood and frankincense of Hekdesh can become Tamei is only mid'Rabanan, while according to TOSFOS (ibid. DH Alma; Chulin 35a DH Ein), this Tum'ah is mid'Oraisa (see Insights to Pesachim 19:1, 20:1).
4)[line 14]צריד של מנחותTZERID SHEL MENACHOS- the dry part of a Minchah offering [which was left untouched by oil]
5)[line 17]והעבירה בנהרV'HE'EVIRAH B'NAHAR- and he led it through a river. Since the hide and meat of a Korban Shelamim belong to the owner of the Korban, he specifically led it through a river so that it would drink a lot of water, thereby making it easier to skin afterwards. Inasmuch as the owner desired the animal to be wet for his own purposes, the water is Machshir the meat of the Korban to accept Tum'ah.
6)[line 17]משקה טופחMASHKEH TOFE'ACH- dripping liquid (some of which by definition must fall upon the meat after Shechitah)
7)[line 18]וניהדר פרשV'NIHADAR PERESH- The Gemara reasons that the excrement found inside the animal has the status of water — since it drank just prior to its slaughter — and is therefore able to be Machshir food.
8)[line 21]משקה סרוחMASHKEH SARU'ACH- spoiled liquid
9)[line 24]גוזGOZ- cut out
10)[line 25]רבי יהודהREBBI YEHUDAH...- see Gemara, Daf 17-18
11)[line 26]וסימניך נזייתאV'SIMANEICH NIZYASA- the way to remember the proper order in the Beraisa is [to recall the order in which beer is brewed; first] barrels (a Kli) used for brewing beer [are brought, then hops (Ochel) are placed in the barrels, and finally water (Mashkeh) is poured upon the hops]
12)[line 26]בתנורTANUR- an earthenware oven
13)[line 2]ואין כל הכליםV'EIN KOL HA'KELIM... (TUM'AH: TUM'AS KLI CHERES)
(a)Klei Cheres are earthenware vessels. They become Tamei only when an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah (a k'Zayis from a Mes) or an Av ha'Tum'ah (such as a Sheretz) enters their airspace (even if the Tum'ah does not touch the Kli itself). After they become Tamei in this manner, they have the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, and any food or drink that enters them becomes Tamei (even if the food item does not touch the inner surface of the Kli).
(b)The Beraisa brought by our Gemara explains that although the verse does not seem to be referring to food only when it describes what may become Tamei after entering the airspace of a Kli Cheres, the next verse reveals that indeed only food was under discussion. According to the erroneous understanding that everything — even a wooden or metal vessel — may become Tamei after being suspended within the airspace of a Kli Cheres which is Tamei, one may have reached the conclusion that the entire earthenware vessel is filled with Tum'ah. Now that only food is affected, it is clear that this is not the case, for if so then even other vessels should be so affected. Rather, the Kli itself becomes Tamei from the source of Tum'ah, and it then affects the food. Other vessels cannot become a Sheni l'Tum'ah as food can.
14)[line 4]אמר רבי יהושע...AMAR REBBI YEHOSHUA...- Much of the following discussion regarding our Mishnah (14a) is quoted from the Gemara earlier (15a). See the Background there for more elucidation.
15)[line 32]הפסד עציםHEFSED EITZIM- loss of [fire]wood [required to burn the Terumah Teluyah separately]
16)[line 36]לזילוףL'ZILUF- for sprinkling on the ground (as an air-freshener)
17)[line 37]לאו מילתא היאLAV MILSA HI- is not a notable use of the wine
18)[line 37]שותין מלוג בסלע...SHOSIN MI'LOG B'SELAH...- buy a Log of wine for drinking purpose for a Sela; for Ziluf, spend even two [Sela'im]
19)[line 38]בחדשCHADASH- recently pressed [wine, which has no fragrance]
20)[line 38]אתי ביה לידי תקלהASI BEI LI'YEDEI TAKALAH- one may come to transgression through it (i.e. to eat it)
21)[line 41]תשפך חבלTISHAFECH CHAVAL- it must all be poured out together; [alt., TISHAFECH HA'KOL (RABEINU CHANANEL; Bava Kama 116a) or TISHAFECH HEVEL - it must all be poured out immediately (ARUCH)]
22)[line 42]בשדהBA'SADEH- in the field (where there is no need for Ziluf)