ERCHIN 25 (8 Tamuz) - Today's Dafyomi study is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Moshe Gottlieb, Moshe Ze'ev ben Chaim Shlomo Yosef ha'Levi z'l, who healed the sick of Jerusalem and Israel with Chesed. Dedicated by his loving family on the day of his Yahrzeit.

[25a - 36 lines; 25b - 48 lines]

**********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 25a DH v'Heichi Dami d'Akdeshah ד"ה והיכי דמי דאקדשה:

The words "she'Yatz'u b'Yetzi'ah Gemurah" שיצאו ביציא גמורה

should be "she'Yatz'u Shanah Gemurah" שיצאו בשנה גמורה (RASHASH, citing the Migdal Oz)

[2] Gemara 25b [line 22]:

"Mi Ma'amid Lah Sadeh, Ba'al...." מי מעמיד לה שדה בעל

It appears that the Girsa of the Rambam and Rabeinu Gershom was

"Mi Ma'amid Lah Ba'al Sadeh...." מי מעמיד לה בעל שדה


1)[line 1]באמצע יובלB'EMTZA YOVEL- in the middle of a Yovel cycle. That is, during any of the years between two Yovel years, one must pay the full Sela and Pundyon for that year when redeeming a Sedeh Achuzah (see Background to Erchin 14:5), even if he is redeeming it in the middle of the year.

2)[line 13]זרע חומר שעוריםZERA CHOMER SE'ORIM - the area in which a Chomer of barley seed can be sown (DRY MEASURES(

(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:

1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in

2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in

3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in

4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin

5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin

6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin

7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim

8.1 Beitzah = 2 or 3 k'Zeisim, according to the varying opinions

(b)In modern-day measures, the k'Zayis is approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.05 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Thus, 1 Se'ah = 7.2, 8.29 or 14.4 liters, according to the various opinions. Therefore 1 Kor = 216, 248.9 or 432 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

(c)The area that can be sown with one Se'ah is 2,500 square cubits, half the area of the enclosure of the Mishkan. Therefore the area that can be sown with a Chomer of grain is 75,000 square cubits, which is approximately equal to a square measuring 274 cubits to a side (approximately 168,750 square feet, or 3.87 acres).

3)[line 14]נקעיםNEKA'IM- ravines, cracks

4a)[line 19]מפולת ידMAPOLES YAD- the area of land that can be sown by hand

b)[line 20]מפולת שווריםMAPOLES SHEVARIM- the area of land that can be sown using oxen

5a)[line 20]מעבהME'UBEH- thickly, densely sown

b)[line 20]מידקMEIDAK- (O.F. cler) thinly sown

6)[line 26]נגאני דארעאNAGANEI D'AR'A- depressions of the land

7)[line 26]שידרי דארעאSHIDREI D'AR'A- spines of the land


8)[line 1]"אם לא יגאל את השדה ואם מכר את השדה לאיש אחר לא יגאל עוד.""IM LO YIG'AL ES HA'SADEH, V'IM MACHAR ES HA'SADEH L'ISH ACHER, LO YIGA'EL OD."- "If he (the owner) does not redeem the field, or if he (the treasurer of Hekdesh) sells it to someone else, it can no longer be redeemed." (Vayikra 27:20)

9)[line 8]יעידהYE'IDAH (YI'UD)

(a)A destitute father, under certain circumstances, may sell his daughter into servitude to a Jewish master as long as she is a minor. The sale is for a period of six years or until she becomes a Gedolah (when two pubic hairs grow after she enters her 12th year) or until the Yovel year (the year after seven Shemitah cycles), whichever comes first. During this period she is called an "Amah ha'Ivriyah."

(b)The Torah gives to the master of a Jewish maidservant the option of marrying her by first being Mekadesh her through a procedure called "Yi'ud." The Kidushin takes effect through the money that he initially gave to her father when he purchased her, as described in Kidushin (19a).

(c)If the master does not want to Mekadesh her with "Yi'ud," the Torah allows his son to Mekadesh her with "Yi'ud" (Vayikra 21:9). If neither the master nor the son wants to marry her, no one else may marry her until she is released from servitude.

10)[line 8]עבד עבריEVED IVRI (EVED IVRI)

(a)See Background to Erchin 18:17.

(b)An Eved Ivri is obligated to work for his master for only six years (Shemos 21:2) or until the Yovel year, whichever comes first. If his master dies before the end of six years (or Yovel) arrives, then his son inherits the Eved Ivri with the rest of his father's estate. However, if the master has no sons, and his brother inherits his estate (Bamidbar 27:9), his brother does not inherit the Eved Ivri (Kidushin 17b), and the Eved goes free.

11)[line 21]מי מעמיד לה שדה?MI MA'AMID LAH SADEH?- (a) who is the one who may redeem the field for her before Yovel, her husband or her son? (RASHI); (b) does her husband [also] have the right to redeem the field for her? (RAMBAM)

12)[line 23]נוטל בראוי כבמוחזקNOTEL B'RA'UY KEVE'MUCHZAK - [the son] inherits Ra'uy like he inherits Muchzak

When a son inherits property from his father, he inherits both the assets that are "Muchzak" and the assets that are "Ra'uy" (with the exception of the double-portion that a firstborn son inherits; see Background to Bava Basra 119:3). Assets in the possession of the father at the time of death are termed "Matzuy" (as mentioned in Devarim 21:17, "b'Chol Asher Yimatzei Lo" - "of everything in his possession (lit. that is found with him)"). Assets that will come into the possession of the estate after the father's death are termed "Ra'uy," i.e. "expected [to come into his possession]." Examples of assets that are Ra'uy include property that comes from one of the father's relatives (whom the father would have inherited) who dies after the father, and money owed to the father.

13)[line 40]רטושיןRETUSHIN- abandoned

14)[last line]כבשי עצרתKIVSEI ATZERES

The Torah commands to bring a Minchah offering on Shavu'os called the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:16-17) that consists of two loaves of bread that are Chametz, made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately equal to 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions). In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim are offered (ibid. 23:18-19). (These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.)