WHEN DOES BITUL WORK?
Question (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua): When an inner person forgot, why are both Chatzeros forbidden? He should Mevatel to the inner Chatzer, and the outer Chatzer would be permitted with them!
Answer (Rava): You ask because you hold like R. Eliezer, who says that it suffices to be Mevatel to one [member of the Chatzer]. I hold like Chachamim, who say that one must Mevatel to everyone [in the Chatzer. Since they were Me'arev together, this includes the outer Chatzer, but Bitul does not help to another Chatzer].
Rav Chisda's lips would tremble when he encountered Rav Sheshes, who organized the Mishnayos very well in his mind [and could ask from one against another]; Rav Sheshes' whole body trembled due to the sharp, deep reasoning of Rav Chisda.
Question (Rav Chisda): If two houses were on opposite sides of Reshus ha'Rabim, and on Shabbos Nochrim made walls [enclosing an area between the houses], what is the law?
We do not ask according to the opinion (Shmuel, 66b) that Bitul to another Chatzer does not help [unless they forbade each other and were Me'arev]. He holds that even though they could have made an Eruv, Bitul does not help [. All the more so Bitul does not help here, for they could not have made an Eruv [before Shabbos];
We ask according to the opinion (R. Yochanan) that Bitul to another Chatzer helps [even if they did not forbid each other]. Perhaps Bitul helps only when they could have made an Eruv, but this is not the case here, so it does not help;
Or, perhaps it helps anyway!
Answer (Rav Sheshes): They may not be Mevatel.
Question (Rav Chisda): If a Nochri died on Shabbos, what is the law? (May the Yisraelim in the Chatzer be Mevatel to one of themselves?)
We do not ask according to the opinion (R. Chanina bar Yosef and R. Yochanan, 65b) that permits renting from a Nochri on Shabbos. They permit two things (after renting, also Bitul is required), so all the more so they permit one (Bitul)!
We ask according to the opinion (R. Asi) that forbids renting from a Nochri on Shabbos. He forbids two things, but perhaps he permits one;
Or, perhaps even one is forbidden!
Answer (Rav Sheshes): I hold that they may be Mevatel, but Rav Hamnuna holds that they may not.
ONE WHO HAS HIS OWN EXIT
(Rav Yehudah): If a Nochri has an opening four by four [Tefachim] to a valley, even if he brings camels and wagons [into the Mavoy], he does not forbid the Bnei Mavoy.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: He prefers using his own opening [for the valley is less crowded. Therefore, it is as if he has no share in the Mavoy.]
Question: If a Nochri has an opening to a Karfef, what is the law?
Answer (Rav Nachman bar Ami): I have a tradition. Even if it is open to a Karfef [he does not forbid].
(Rabah and Rav Yosef): If a Nochri has an opening to a Karfef [at most] Beis Sa'atayim, he forbids. (It is not so big, so he still uses the Mavoy.) If it is more than Beis Sa'atayim, he does not forbid;
If a Yisrael [forgot to be Me'arev in the Mavoy, and he] has an opening [to a Karfef] Beis Sa'atayim, he does not forbid. (It suffices for his needs on Shabbos.) If it is more than Beis Sa'atayim [it is a Karmelis, so he cannot bring from his house to it, so] he forbids.
Question (Rabah bar Chaklai): If [a Nochri] has an opening to a Karfef, what is the law?
Answer (Rav Huna): It the Karfef is [at most] Beis Sa'atayim, he forbids. If it is more than this, he does not forbid. (We said that the opening is four by four. Normally, we discuss only the width of an opening, e.g. 'four wide'! Ra'avad - the opening is a window. A Nochri or Yisrael with a proper [big] opening, even if it is to a small Karfef, does not forbid. Mishnah Berurah - a Nochri with a window does not forbid [if the Karfef is big enough], all the more so if he has a proper opening.)
(R. Yochanan): If a Karfef more than Beis Sa'atayim was not Hukaf l'Dirah (surrounded for needs of dwelling), even if it is a Beis Kor (15 times Beis Sa'atayim) or twice this size [or bigger], one who throws into it [from Reshus ha'Rabim] is liable.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: It has a proper wall (it is Reshus ha'Yachid), just it is lacking dwellers.
Question (Rav Huna bar Chinena - Beraisa): If a rock in the sea is four [by four Tefachim] wide and 10 Tefachim tall (it is Reshus ha'Yachid), one may not transfer between it and the sea, [even] within four Amos. If it is less than 10 tall [it is a Karmelis, just like the sea], one may transfer;
This applies only if it is at most Beis Sa'atayim.
Question: Does the last clause modify the Reisha (if it is 10 tall, one may not transfer), or the Seifa (if it is not 10 tall, one may transfer)?
Answer #1: It modifies the Seifa. The Heter to transfer [when it is less than 10 tall] is only if it is not Beis Sa'atayim.
Rejection: If it is Beis Sa'atayim, it is a Karmelis. All the more so one may transfer to another Karmelis!
Answer #2: It modifies the Reisha. The Isur to transfer [when it is 10 tall] is only if it is not Beis Sa'atayim. If it is this size, it is permitted.
Inference: This is because when it is this big it is a [normal] Karmelis. (Mid'Oraisa it is Makom Patur.) If it was Reshus ha'Yachid mid'Oraisa, it would be forbidden to transfer. This refutes R. Yochanan!
Answer #1 (Rava): People who do not know how to explain Beraisos ask questions against R. Yochanan! Really, it modifies the Reisha. When it is 10 tall, one may carry on the entire rock (even more than four Amos);
This is only if it is not Beis Sa'atayim. If it is Beis Sa'atayim, one may carry only within four Amos.
Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): It modifies the Reisha. Chachamim said [a law], and they said [another law, and said which to follow when there is a conflict]:
They taught that one may not carry more than four Amos in a Karfef more than Beis Sa'atayim not Hukaf l'Dirah, and that one may not transfer from Reshus ha'Yachid to Karmelis.
If a Karfef is [at most] Beis Sa'atayim, one may carry in all of it. They forbid transferring between it and the sea;
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: It is Reshus ha'Yachid in every respect.
If a Karfef is more than Beis Sa'atayim, one may not carry in all of it. They permit transferring between it and the sea.
Question: What is the reason [for the latter law]?
Answer: If they would forbid, people might come to think that it is a Reshus ha'Yachid in every respect, and carry in all of it!
Question: When it is more than Beis Sa'atayim, the Isur to carry in all of it is only mid'Rabanan. Why are we more concerned for this Isur, than the Isur [mid'Rabanan] of transferring from Reshus ha'Yachid to Karmelis? (We permitted the latter Isur, lest people come to transgress the former!)
Answer: It is common to carry on a big rock. (Perhaps others will see and come to carry in Reshus ha'Rabim, which resembles it.) It is not common to transfer between it and the sea.
BRINGING HOT WATER FOR CIRCUMCISION
A case occurred in which the hot water prepared [from before Shabbos] for a baby [to wash his Ever before Bris Milah] spilled. Rabah told people 'bring hot water from my house'!
Abaye: There is no Eruv [in the Chatzer]!
Rabah: We can rely on the Shituf [of the Mavoy. Some say that this is only if bread was used. R. Yehonason - one may rely on it for a Mitzvah.]
Abaye: There is no Shituf [in the Mavoy]!
Rabah: Tell a Nochri to bring the water from my house.
Abaye: I was about to ask a question. Rav Yosef stopped me;
(Rav Yosef): If a case occurs and a Chacham permits something, and a Talmid thinks that [the Chacham errs, and] it is really forbidden mid'Oraisa, the Talmid should ask before they do it;
If he thinks that it is forbidden mid'Rabanan, he should ask after they do it.
Afterwards, Rav Yosef asked Abaye what he wanted to ask.
Question (Abaye): Haza'ah (sprinkling Mei Chatas to be Metaher) is Shevus (forbidden mid'Rabanan on Shabbos), just like telling a Nochri [to do something forbidden to Yisraelim];
Just like we may not do Haza'ah on Shabbos [even if this will prevent someone from fulfilling Korban Pesach], similarly we may not tell a Nochri [to bring water without an Eruv] for the sake of Milah!