[4a - 41 lines; 4b - 46 lines]


(a)One who has intimate relations with a Nidah (see Background to Pesachim 112:62) becomes Tamei for seven days, similar to the Nidah herself. His Tum'ah, however, is less stringent. Any object which comes into contact with him (Maga'o), as well as any object underneath him (Tachtono), gain the same status of an object which lies above a Nidah (Elyonah); namely, that of a Rishon l'Tum'ah (Vayikra 15:24; see Nidah 33a, and Charts to Nidah 33:8b). After seven days, he immerses in a Mikvah during the daytime in order to complete his purification process.

(b)Reish Lakish explains that our Mishnah follows the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira. Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira is concerned that the Kohen Gadol may find his wife to be a Nidah while having relations with her seven days prior to Yom ha'Kipurim.

2)[line 2]D'YALFINA- that I derive [the seven-day period of Perishah]

3)[line 3] ZEH V'ZEH- both the Kohen Gadol prior to Yom Kipur and the Kohen who is to burn the Parah Adumah

4)[line 3]MAZIN- we sprinkle

5)[line 3] MI'KOL CHATA'OS SHE'HAYU SHAM- from the ashes of all of the Paros Adumos (see Background to 2:6) which were in the Beis ha'Mikdash. There were either seven or nine Paros Adumos in history (see Mishnayos Parah 3:5), and ashes remained from every one of them - even the one burned by Moshe Rabeinu in the desert.

6)[line 8] NICHNESU MAYIM TACHAS DAM- That which "la'Asos" and "l'Chaper" are understood to be referring to Yom ha'Kipurim and the Parah Adumah respectively, according to Rebbi Yochanan, is not a true derivation. The simple understanding of these words is that they are referring to the final six days of the Milu'im, as Rashi explains in Chumash. As it therefore follows that that which we do derive these separations is more of a hint than a full Derashah, it is not significant that it is water that is sprinkled in these cases as opposed to the blood that was sprinkled during the Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im (TOSFOS DH Nichnesu; see Insights).

7)[line 9] MA'ALEH B'ALMA- is an extra degree of sanctity stipulated by the Chachamim. The reason why they instituted this measure for the Kohen who burned the Parah Adumah was to counterbalance their decision to deliberately be Metamei the Kohen who burned the Parah Adumah (see 2a, line 15). The reason why they instituted this measure for the Kohen Gadol before Yom Kipur was in recognition of his impending entry to the Holy of Holies.

8)[line 11]" , [ , ""B'ZOS YAVO AHARON EL HA'KODESH, [B'FAR BEN BAKAR L'CHAT'AS, V'AYIL L'OLAH]"- "With this shall Aharon enter the Kodesh [ha'Kodashim], [with an ox as a Chat'as offering, and a ram as an Olah offering]" (Vayikra 16:3).

9)[line 14]MASAR- (in this context) imparted

10)[line 17] L'AFUKEI TZIDUKIN- as opposed to [students of] the Tzedukim (see Background to 2:11) [who literally interpreted the verse to mean that the Kohen Gadol should first ignite the pan of Ketores, and only then enter the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (see 53a)]

11)[line 30] ""LEIMA KRA "B'ZEH"- Since the words "Par" and "Ayil" are feminine, the correct way to refer to them would be with the masculine form of the word - "b'Zeh" - as opposed to the feminine form of the word - "b'Zos."

12)[line 31] ""?MAI V'OMER?- i.e., why does the Beraisa require a second Pasuk as proof?

13a)[line 32]" YOM HA'KIPURIM KAMA- the very first Yom ha'Kipurim in history

b)[line 34]" KOHEN GADOL KAMA- the very first Kohen Gadol in history; i.e., Aharon ha'Kohen

14)[line 36] V'NISKASEH BE'ANAN- and he was covered by a cloud; the words "va'Yechaseihu he'Anan" (see next entry) refer to Moshe, not Har Sinai.

15)[line 50]"[ , .] ' , [ ; ]""[VA'YA'AL MOSHE EL HA'HAR; VA'YECHAS HE'ANAN ES HA'HAR.] VA'YISHKON KEVOD HASH-M AL HAR SINAI [VA'YECHASEHU HE'ANAN SHESHES YAMIM; VA'YIKRA EL MOSHE BA'YOM HA'SHEVI'I MI'TOCH HE'ANAN]" - "[Moshe went up the mountain, and the cloud covered the mountain.] And the glory of HaSh-m settled upon Har Sinai, [and the cloud covered it (or him) for six days; and He called to Moshe on the seventh day from the cloud]" (Shemos 24:15-16) (MOSHE CLIMBS HAR SINAI)

(a)The interpretation of the verse "and the Cloud covered... for six days" depends on when the Torah was given, as the Gemara here explains. If it was given on the seventh of Sivan, then the verse means that the cloud covered Har Sinai the six days prior to the seventh of Sivan. Moshe entered the cloud and ascended up to the Heavenly Throne on the following day. If the Torah was given on the sixth of Sivan, then the verse means that on the seventh of Sivan Moshe entered the Cloud, which subsequently covered him for six days (from the 7th of Sivan until the 12th) to cleanse him from the food that he had eaten, before ascending to Heaven for the remaining thirty-four days.

16)[line 38] ZEH HAYA MA'ASEH- this story occurred

17a)[line 39] ACHAR ASERES HA'DIBROS- following the [day upon which Klal Yisrael received the] ten commandments [namely, the sixth or seventh of Sivan (see 4b)]

b)[line 39] SHE'HAYU TECHILAH L'ARBA'IM YOM- which was the beginning of the period of the forty days and nights which Moshe spent on Har Sinai while receiving the first set of Luchos from HaSh-m. If the six days referred to in the Pasuk were the first six days of Sivan, they could not have been days during which Moshe Rabeinu was sequestered away. This is because the verses (Shemos 19) clearly state that he went up and down the mountain during this time, relaying messages from HaSh-m to Klal Yisrael and vice versa. From that which Rebbi Yosi understands that they were the six days following and that Moshe was covered by a cloud during the entire time, we see that Moshe was separated for six days prior to Kabalas ha'Torah. This is the proof for the opinion of Reish Lakish (see Insights).

18)[last line] ME'ROSH CHODESH- from the first day of the month [of Sivan]


19)[line 1][] [MOSHE] V'CHOL YISRAEL OMDIN- Moshe and all of Bnei Yisrael were standing [together at the foot of Har Sinai when HaSh-m called to Moshe, as opposed to Moshe being alone in the cloud]

20)[line 3] REBBI NASAN OMER- Rebbi Nasan agrees with Rebbi Yosi ha'Gelili, who maintains that the six days mentioned in the verse were the first six days following Matan Torah. However, he maintains that it is not possible to learn from this behavior that a Kohen Gadol should separate himself prior to Yom Kipur, as the reason why this was necessary for Moshe Rabeinu then does not apply to a Kohen Gadol before Yom Kipur.

21)[line 4]L'MAREK- to purge

22)[line 5]L'SUMO- lit. to place him; to raise him to the level of

23)[line 5]' REBBI MASYA BEN CHARASH OMER- the comments made in entry #19 above apply here as well.

24)[line 6]L'AYEIM- to inspire awe

25a)[line 7]EIMAH- awe

b)[line 7]RESES- trembling

c)[line 7]ZI'A- quivering

26)[line 8]" ' , ""IVDU ES HASH-M B'YIR'AH, V'GILU BI'RE'ADAH"- "Serve HaSh-m in awe, and rejoice with trepidation" (Tehilim 2:11).

27)[line 10] B'MAKOM GILA- where there is joy. a) This refers to the place where the Torah was given, as the Pasuk states, "The statutes of HaSh-m are upright, gladdening the heart" (Tehilim 19:9) (RASHI); b) This refers to the place where HaSh-m is, as the Pasuk states, "Strength and joy are in His place" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 16:27) (TOSFOS).

28)[line 12] B'SHISHAH BA'CHODESH- on the sixth of the month [of Sivan]

29)[line 21]ISTALEK- departed

30)[line 23] B'SHIV'AH ASAR B'TAMUZ NISHTABRU HA'LUCHOS- The first Mishnah in the third Perek of Ta'anis (26a-b) lists five misfortunes that befell Klal Yisrael on the seventeenth of Tamuz. The first was that Moshe Rabeinu broke the first set of Luchos.

31)[line 24]NACHIS- he descended

32)[line 24]V'TAVRINHU- and he broke them

33)[line 26] ARBA'IN D'HAR BA'HADEI SHISHAH D'PERISHAH- the forty [days] upon the mountain include those six during which he was separated

34)[line 29] V'LO BA HA'KASUV ELA L'CHALEK LO KAVOD L'MOSHE- The Gemara quotes these words of Rebbi Akiva in the Beraisa mentioned earlier in order to bring an apparent contradiction to them.

35)[line 29]" "; " ""KOL LO"; "KOL ELAV"- The Torah states, "And when Moshe came to the Ohel Mo'ed to speak to Him, he heard the voice speak at him..." (Bamidbar 7:89). This Beraisa points out that the words "Kol [Midaber] Elav" - "voice speak at him" - should more correctly be written as "Kol [Midaber] Lo" - "voice speak to him."

36)[line 31]RAMI- posed a contradiction

37)[line 34] ' D'BEI REBBI YISHMA'EL TANA- the household of Rebbi Yishmael learned [a different answer]

38)[line 35]SHVIL- a path

39)[line 36]" ; [ ' , ""VA'YIKRA EL MOSHE; [VA'YEDABER HASH-M EILAV, ME'OHEL MO'ED LEIMOR]"- "And He called to Moshe; [and HaSh-m spoke to him from the Ohel Mo'ed saying" (Vayikra 1:1).

40)[line 37]KOREHU- [first] calls to him [and draws his attention]

41)[line 39]LEIMOR- The Gemara now quotes the last word in the verse just mentioned. The word "Lemor" does not seem to be necessary in order to understand the Torah on the simplest level, as HaSh-m commands Moshe in the following Pasuk to relay this Parshah to Bnei Yisrael. Our Gemara therefore interprets it homiletically.

42)[line 40] SHE'HU B'VAL YOMAR- that it must be assumed that he may not relay it to others

43)[line 41]LEMOR- This word is broken into two separate words: "Lo Emor" - "do not say" (RASHI).

44)[line 41] ...MICHLAL D'TARVAIHU...- The Gemara now returns to the argument put forth by Reish Lakish to Rebbi Yochanan on 3b. Rebbi Yochanan did not disagree when Reish Lakish contended that those details of the service that were required during the Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im invalidated that service were they not performed. Our Gemara therefore deduces that this is the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan as well.

45a)[line 44]TISTAYEIM- let us prove

b)[last line]TISTAYEIM- it has been proven