[4a - 41 lines; 4b - 46 lines]
1)[line 1]טומאת ביתוTUM'AS BEISO (BO'EL NIDAH)
(a)One who has intimate relations with a Nidah (see Background to Pesachim 112:62) becomes Tamei for seven days, similar to the Nidah herself. His Tum'ah, however, is less stringent. Any object which comes into contact with him (Maga'o), as well as any object underneath him (Tachtono), gain the same status of an object which lies above a Nidah (Elyonah); namely, that of a Rishon l'Tum'ah (Vayikra 15:24; see Nidah 33a, and Charts to Nidah 33:8b). After seven days, he immerses in a Mikvah during the daytime in order to complete his purification process.
(b)Reish Lakish explains that our Mishnah follows the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira. Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira is concerned that the Kohen Gadol may find his wife to be a Nidah while having relations with her seven days prior to Yom ha'Kipurim.
2)[line 2]דילפינהD'YALFINA- that I derive [the seven-day period of Perishah]
3)[line 3]זה וזהZEH V'ZEH- both the Kohen Gadol prior to Yom Kipur and the Kohen who is to burn the Parah Adumah
4)[line 3]מזיןMAZIN- we sprinkle
5)[line 3]מכל חטאות שהיו שםMI'KOL CHATA'OS SHE'HAYU SHAM- from the ashes of all of the Paros Adumos (see Background to 2:6) which were in the Beis ha'Mikdash. There were either seven or nine Paros Adumos in history (see Mishnayos Parah 3:5), and ashes remained from every one of them - even the one burned by Moshe Rabeinu in the desert.
6)[line 8]נכנסו מים תחת דםNICHNESU MAYIM TACHAS DAM- That which "la'Asos" and "l'Chaper" are understood to be referring to Yom ha'Kipurim and the Parah Adumah respectively, according to Rebbi Yochanan, is not a true derivation. The simple understanding of these words is that they are referring to the final six days of the Milu'im, as Rashi explains in Chumash. As it therefore follows that that which we do derive these separations is more of a hint than a full Derashah, it is not significant that it is water that is sprinkled in these cases as opposed to the blood that was sprinkled during the Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im (TOSFOS DH Nichnesu; see Insights).
7)[line 9]מעלה בעלמָאMA'ALEH B'ALMA- is an extra degree of sanctity stipulated by the Chachamim. The reason why they instituted this measure for the Kohen who burned the Parah Adumah was to counterbalance their decision to deliberately be Metamei the Kohen who burned the Parah Adumah (see 2a, line 15). The reason why they instituted this measure for the Kohen Gadol before Yom Kipur was in recognition of his impending entry to the Holy of Holies.
8)[line 11]"בְּזֹאת יָבֹא אַהֲרֹן אֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ, [בְּפַר בֶּן בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת, וְאַיִל לְעֹלָה""B'ZOS YAVO AHARON EL HA'KODESH, [B'FAR BEN BAKAR L'CHAT'AS, V'AYIL L'OLAH]"- "With this shall Aharon enter the Kodesh [ha'Kodashim], [with an ox as a Chat'as offering, and a ram as an Olah offering]" (Vayikra 16:3).
9)[line 14]מָסרMASAR- (in this context) imparted
10)[line 17]לאפוקי צדוקיןL'AFUKEI TZIDUKIN- as opposed to [students of] the Tzedukim (see Background to 2:11) [who literally interpreted the verse to mean that the Kohen Gadol should first ignite the pan of Ketores, and only then enter the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (see 53a)]
11)[line 30]לימא קרא "בזה"LEIMA KRA "B'ZEH"- Since the words "Par" and "Ayil" are feminine, the correct way to refer to them would be with the masculine form of the word - "b'Zeh" - as opposed to the feminine form of the word - "b'Zos."
12)[line 31]מאי "ואומר"?MAI V'OMER?- i.e., why does the Beraisa require a second Pasuk as proof?
13a)[line 32]יוה"כ קמָאYOM HA'KIPURIM KAMA- the very first Yom ha'Kipurim in history
b)[line 34]כ"ג קמָאKOHEN GADOL KAMA- the very first Kohen Gadol in history; i.e., Aharon ha'Kohen
14)[line 36]ונתכסה בעָנָןV'NISKASEH BE'ANAN- and he was covered by a cloud; the words "va'Yechaseihu he'Anan" (see next entry) refer to Moshe, not Har Sinai.
15)[line 50]"[וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה אֶל הָהָר, וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת הָהָר.] וַיִּשְׁכֹּן כְּבוֹד ה' עַל הַר סִינַי, [וַיְכַסֵּהוּ הֶעָנָן שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים; וַיִּקְרָא אֶל מֹשֶׁה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִתּוֹךְ הֶעָנָן]""[VA'YA'AL MOSHE EL HA'HAR; VA'YECHAS HE'ANAN ES HA'HAR.] VA'YISHKON KEVOD HASH-M AL HAR SINAI [VA'YECHASEHU HE'ANAN SHESHES YAMIM; VA'YIKRA EL MOSHE BA'YOM HA'SHEVI'I MI'TOCH HE'ANAN]" - "[Moshe went up the mountain, and the cloud covered the mountain.] And the glory of HaSh-m settled upon Har Sinai, [and the cloud covered it (or him) for six days; and He called to Moshe on the seventh day from the cloud]" (Shemos 24:15-16) (MOSHE CLIMBS HAR SINAI)
(a)The interpretation of the verse "and the Cloud covered... for six days" depends on when the Torah was given, as the Gemara here explains. If it was given on the seventh of Sivan, then the verse means that the cloud covered Har Sinai the six days prior to the seventh of Sivan. Moshe entered the cloud and ascended up to the Heavenly Throne on the following day. If the Torah was given on the sixth of Sivan, then the verse means that on the seventh of Sivan Moshe entered the Cloud, which subsequently covered him for six days (from the 7th of Sivan until the 12th) to cleanse him from the food that he had eaten, before ascending to Heaven for the remaining thirty-four days.
16)[line 38]זה היה מעשהZEH HAYA MA'ASEH- this story occurred
17a)[line 39]אחר עשרת הדברותACHAR ASERES HA'DIBROS- following the [day upon which Klal Yisrael received the] ten commandments [namely, the sixth or seventh of Sivan (see 4b)]
b)[line 39]שהיו תחלה לארבעים יוםSHE'HAYU TECHILAH L'ARBA'IM YOM- which was the beginning of the period of the forty days and nights which Moshe spent on Har Sinai while receiving the first set of Luchos from HaSh-m. If the six days referred to in the Pasuk were the first six days of Sivan, they could not have been days during which Moshe Rabeinu was sequestered away. This is because the verses (Shemos 19) clearly state that he went up and down the mountain during this time, relaying messages from HaSh-m to Klal Yisrael and vice versa. From that which Rebbi Yosi understands that they were the six days following and that Moshe was covered by a cloud during the entire time, we see that Moshe was separated for six days prior to Kabalas ha'Torah. This is the proof for the opinion of Reish Lakish (see Insights).
18)[last line]מראש חודשME'ROSH CHODESH- from the first day of the month [of Sivan]
19)[line 1][משה] וכל ישראל עומדין[MOSHE] V'CHOL YISRAEL OMDIN- Moshe and all of Bnei Yisrael were standing [together at the foot of Har Sinai when HaSh-m called to Moshe, as opposed to Moshe being alone in the cloud]
20)[line 3]רבי נתן אומרREBBI NASAN OMER- Rebbi Nasan agrees with Rebbi Yosi ha'Gelili, who maintains that the six days mentioned in the verse were the first six days following Matan Torah. However, he maintains that it is not possible to learn from this behavior that a Kohen Gadol should separate himself prior to Yom Kipur, as the reason why this was necessary for Moshe Rabeinu then does not apply to a Kohen Gadol before Yom Kipur.
21)[line 4]למרקL'MAREK- to purge
22)[line 5]לשומוL'SUMO- lit. to place him; to raise him to the level of
23)[line 5]ר' מתיא בן חרש אומרREBBI MASYA BEN CHARASH OMER- the comments made in entry #19 above apply here as well.
24)[line 6]לאייםL'AYEIM- to inspire awe
25a)[line 7]אימהEIMAH- awe
b)[line 7]רתתRESES- trembling
c)[line 7]זיעZI'A- quivering
26)[line 8]"עִבְדוּ אֶת ה' בְּיִרְאָה, וְגִילוּ בִּרְעָדָה""IVDU ES HASH-M B'YIR'AH, V'GILU BI'RE'ADAH"- "Serve HaSh-m in awe, and rejoice with trepidation" (Tehilim 2:11).
27)[line 10]במקום גילהB'MAKOM GILA- where there is joy. a) This refers to the place where the Torah was given, as the Pasuk states, "The statutes of HaSh-m are upright, gladdening the heart" (Tehilim 19:9) (RASHI); b) This refers to the place where HaSh-m is, as the Pasuk states, "Strength and joy are in His place" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 16:27) (TOSFOS).
28)[line 12]בששה בחודשB'SHISHAH BA'CHODESH- on the sixth of the month [of Sivan]
29)[line 21]אסתלקISTALEK- departed
30)[line 23]בשבעה עשר בתמוז נשתברו הלוחותB'SHIV'AH ASAR B'TAMUZ NISHTABRU HA'LUCHOS- The first Mishnah in the third Perek of Ta'anis (26a-b) lists five misfortunes that befell Klal Yisrael on the seventeenth of Tamuz. The first was that Moshe Rabeinu broke the first set of Luchos.
31)[line 24]נחיתNACHIS- he descended
32)[line 24]ותברינהוV'TAVRINHU- and he broke them
33)[line 26]ארבעין דהר בהדי ששה דפרישהARBA'IN D'HAR BA'HADEI SHISHAH D'PERISHAH- the forty [days] upon the mountain include those six during which he was separated
34)[line 29]ולא בא הכתוב אלא לחלק לו כבוד למשהV'LO BA HA'KASUV ELA L'CHALEK LO KAVOD L'MOSHE- The Gemara quotes these words of Rebbi Akiva in the Beraisa mentioned earlier in order to bring an apparent contradiction to them.
35)[line 29]"קול לו"; "קול אליו""KOL LO"; "KOL ELAV"- The Torah states, "And when Moshe came to the Ohel Mo'ed to speak to Him, he heard the voice speak at him..." (Bamidbar 7:89). This Beraisa points out that the words "Kol [Midaber] Elav" - "voice speak at him" - should more correctly be written as "Kol [Midaber] Lo" - "voice speak to him."
36)[line 31]רמיRAMI- posed a contradiction
37)[line 34]דבי ר' ישמעאל תנאD'BEI REBBI YISHMA'EL TANA- the household of Rebbi Yishmael learned [a different answer]
38)[line 35]שבילSHVIL- a path
39)[line 36]"וַיִּקְרָא אֶל מֹשֶׁה; [וַיְדַבֵּר ה' אֵלָיו, מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹר""VA'YIKRA EL MOSHE; [VA'YEDABER HASH-M EILAV, ME'OHEL MO'ED LEIMOR]"- "And He called to Moshe; [and HaSh-m spoke to him from the Ohel Mo'ed saying" (Vayikra 1:1).
40)[line 37]קורֵהוKOREHU- [first] calls to him [and draws his attention]
41)[line 39]לֵאמרLEIMOR- The Gemara now quotes the last word in the verse just mentioned. The word "Lemor" does not seem to be necessary in order to understand the Torah on the simplest level, as HaSh-m commands Moshe in the following Pasuk to relay this Parshah to Bnei Yisrael. Our Gemara therefore interprets it homiletically.
42)[line 40]שהוא בבל יאמרSHE'HU B'VAL YOMAR- that it must be assumed that he may not relay it to others
43)[line 41]לֵאמרLEMOR- This word is broken into two separate words: "Lo Emor" - "do not say" (RASHI).
44)[line 41]מכלל דתרווייהו...MICHLAL D'TARVAIHU...- The Gemara now returns to the argument put forth by Reish Lakish to Rebbi Yochanan on 3b. Rebbi Yochanan did not disagree when Reish Lakish contended that those details of the service that were required during the Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im invalidated that service were they not performed. Our Gemara therefore deduces that this is the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan as well.
45a)[line 44]תסתייםTISTAYEIM- let us prove
b)[last line]תסתייםTISTAYEIM- it has been proven