(a)What does 'Pezer Keshev' represent?
(b)What is the acronym of ...
1. the 'Pey'?
2. ... the 'Zayin'?
3. ... the 'Reish'?
4. ... the 'Kuf'?
5. ... the 'Shin'?
6. ... the Beis'?
(c)What is the meaning of ...
1. the 'Pey'?
2. ... the 'Zayin'?
3. ... the 'Reish'?
4. ... the 'Kuf'?
5. ... the 'Shin'?
6. ... the Beis'?
(d)Why do we not then include the Musaf of Shavu'os (for the Kohen's Hafrashah) from "Lechaper"?
(a)Pezer Keshev represents - the first letters of the six things that distinguish Shemini Atzeres from Succos.
1. ... 'Pey' stands for - Payis l'Atzmo, the ....
2. ... 'Zayin' - for Zman l'Atzmo, the ...
3. ... 'Reish' - for Regel l'Atzmo, the ...
4. ... 'Kuf' - for Korban l'Atzmo, the
5. ... 'Shin' - for Shir l'Atzmo, and the ...
6. ... 'Beis' - for B'rachah l'Atzmo.
1. 'Payas l'Atzmo' means - that although the Kohanim took turns in rotation to bring the Korbanos of Sukos (each of the twenty-four Mishmaros had three turns to bring the bulls - which, due to their size, was considered a privilege), when it came to Shemini Atzeres, they drew new lots, and any of the groups could have had the good fortune to bring the one bull that was brought on that day.
2. Zman l'Atzmo - that they recited Birchas Shehechiyanu afresh (as one always does on a new Yom-Tov).
3. Regel l'Atzmo - that it is called 'Shemini Atzeres' (in Davening and in Birchas ha'Mazon).
4. Korban l'Atzmo - that it had its own set pattern for the Musaf Korban (one bull, one ram and seven lambs), and did not follow that of the rest of Sukos (from thirteen down to seven bulls, two rams and fourteen lambs).
5. Shir l'Atzmo - that, although the Shir shel Yom of the rest of Sukos was connected with Gezel Matnos Aniyim, that of Sukos does not fit into this group of Mizmorim; what they said was Kapitel 12 ("Lam'natze'ach al ha'Sheminis" - Rosh Hashanah DH 'Pezer Keshev').
6. Berachah l'Atzmo - that every eighth year, after the completion of the Mitzvah of Hakhel, when the King sent the people home, they would bless him, a Berachah that was not recited on the other days of Sukos.
(d)We do not include the Musaf of Shavu'os (in the Mitzvah of Hafrashah) from "Lechaper" - because we prefer to include Yom Kipur, which is similar to the Milu'im, inasmuch as both consist of one bull and one ram, as opposed to the Musaf of Shavu'os, which consists of one bull and two rams.
(a)According to Rebbi, the communal ram mentioned in Acharei-Mos (among the Yom Kipur Korbanos) is the same one that is mentioned in Pinchas (by the Musafin). What does Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon hold? What problem does this create with regard to including Yom Kipur from "Lechaper"?
(b)How do we resolve this problem? In what way is Yom Kipur not comparable to Shavu'os even according to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon?
(c)What does this have to do with the Pasuk in Pinchas "Milevad Olas ha'Boker"?
(a)The answer that we just gave (to explain why we prefer to include Yom Kipur in the Din of Hafrashah, rather than Shavu'os, is acceptable according to Rebbi, who learns that the communal ram mentioned in Acharei-Mos (among the Yom Kipur Korbanos) is the same as the one mentioned in Pinchas (by the Musafin); but according to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, who maintains that they are two different rams, what is the difference between Yom Kipur and Shavu'os in this regard?
(b)Even according to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, the second ram is not part of the Musaf-offering, but a separate Yom Kipur obligation. The Musaf therefore, remains one bull and one ram, just like the Korban of the Milu'im; the Musaf of Shavu'os, on the other hand, consists of two rams.
(c)The proof for this is the fact that the Torah does not write "Milevad Olas ha'Boker" (in Acharei-Mos), as it does by all the Musaf-offerings (since they come to add to the Tamid of the day).
(a)Then why should we not include the Musaf of Rosh Hashanah from "Lechaper"?
(b)Which of the above Musafin can be incorporated in this answer?
(a)We cannot include the Musaf of Rosh Hashanah from "Lechaper" - because we prefer to learn Yom Kipur where, like by the Milu'im, the bull and the ram came out of the Kohen Gadol's own pocket (unlike the Musaf of Rosh Hashanah, which was paid for with communal funds).
(b)This provides us with an additional reason for not learning Hafrashah by the Musaf of Shavu'os from the Milu'im.
(a)What is the difference between the word "Lecha" (such as in "Kach Lecha" - by the spices for the Ketores and "Aseh Lecha" - by the silver trumpets) on the one hand, and "Veyikchu Eilecha" (by the olive-oil for the Menorah) on the other - according to Rebbi Yashiyah?
(b)What does Rebbi Yonasan hold?
(c)According to Rebbi Yonasan, "Kach-Lecha" implies a communal obligation. Then why does the Torah use the singular form?
(d)What does 'kiv'Yachol' mean, according to Rashi's interpretation?
(a)According to Rebbi Yashiyah, "Lecha" generally means from one's private purse, whereas "Eilecha" means from public funds.
(b)Rebbi Yonasan interprets both to mean that they must come from public funds.
(c)According to Rebbi Yonasan, even though "Kach-Lecha" implies a communal obligation, the Torah uses the singular form to show Moshe that Hash-m would really have preferred the Ketores to come out of his pocket.
(d)'kiv'Yachol' means as if it was possible to say such a thing (about Hash-m).
(a)How does Aba Chanan, quoting Rebbi Elazar, explain the discrepancy between the Pasuk in Eikev: "v'Asisa Lecha Aron Etz", and the Pasuk in Terumah: "v'Asu Aron Atzei Shitim"?
(b)We concluded earlier that we include Yom Kipur in the Mitzvah of Hafrashah from "Lechaper" written by the Milu'im, rather than Rosh Hashanah or Shavu'os, since some of its Korbanos (like some of those of the Milu'im) were brought by the Kohen Gadol (unlike the latter two, which were all Korbenos Tzibur). In that case, how does Rebbi Yonasan explain the Lashon of "Kach Lecha" by the Milu'im, and "Par ha'Chatas Asher Lo" by Yom Kipur?
(a)Aba Chanan, quoting Rebbi Elazar, explains that the Pasuk "v'Asisa Lecha Aron Etz" - speaks when Yisrael are not performing the will of Hash-m (when the Aron is ascribed to Moshe, and not to them); whereas the Pasuk "v'Asu Aron Atzei Shitim"- speaks when they are (so it is ascribed to them).
(b)According to Rebbi Yonasan, the reason that the Torah writes "Kach Lecha" by both the Milu'im, and "Asher Lo" by Yom Kipur - is because, having already clarified that the Korbanos mentioned just before them were to be brought communally, it needs to inform us that those two respective Korbanos must be brought from private funds.
(a)Rav Ashi explains that we include Yom Kipur from "Lechaper" since both cases have to bring a bull as a Chatas and a ram as an Olah. What were the bull and ram brought as, on Rosh Hashanah and on Shavu'os?
(b)Ravina refutes all the previous suggestions (all other Korbanos, Yom-Tov, Pesach, Succos, Shemini Atzeres, Shavu'os and Rosh Hashanah) by introducing a unique characteristic that is found by the Milu'im and Yom Kipur exclusively. What is it?
(c)In the second version of Ravina, the Gemara says 'Danin Avodah Techilah me'Avodah Techilah'. This cannot mean that the Milu'im and Yom Kipur share the distinction that they were both firsts for the Kohen Gadol, because in that case, the second Lashon of Ravina will merely be duplicating the first. What then, does it mean?
(d)How can we describe the Milu'im (which refers to the eighth day of the Milu'im) as the first, regarding the Avodah being performed on the Mizbe'ach - seeing as Moshe had already performed the same Avodah (in the capacity of Kohen Gadol) during the preceding seven days?
(a)Rav Ashi explains that we include Yom Kipur from "Lechaper", since both cases had to bring a bull as a Chatas and a ram as an Olah. On Rosh Hashanah and on Shavu'os they were both brought as Olos.
(b)Ravina refutes all the previous suggestions - by pointing out that on Yom Kipur, like by the Milu'im, the entire Avodah was confined to the Kohen Gadol; whereas in the case of all the other Korbanos (Yom-Tov, Pesach, Succos, Shemini Atzeres, Shavu'os and Rosh Hashanah), they could be performed by any Kohen.
(c)In the second version of Ravina, the Gemara says 'Danin Avodah Techilah me'Avodah Techilah' - meaning that both the Yom Kipur (of the first year in the desert) and the Milu'im, had the distinction of being the first: Yom Kipur was the first time that anybody entered the Kodesh Kodshim, and the Milu'im was the first time that Korbanos were brought on the Mizbe'ach.
(d)True, Moshe had already performed the same Avodah (in the capacity of Kohen Gadol) during the preceding seven days. However, he performed them wearing a white linen garment, and as far as the regular Avodah (which the Kohen performed wearing the four special garments) is concerned, that was not considered a valid Avodah.
(a)How does Rebbi Yochanan (who derives only Yom Kipur in the Din of Hafrashah, and not the Kohen who prepared the Parah Adumah) explain the Beraisa, which specifically includes both the Parah Adumah and Yom Kipur in the Mitzvah of Hafrashah?
(b)How do we reconcile this with another statement of Rebbi Yochanan's, where he learns the Parah Adumah from "La'asos" and Yom Kipur from "Lechaper" (just like we did at the beginning of the Sugya)?
(a)According to Rebbi Yochanan, the Beraisa, which also includes the Parah Adumah in the Mitzvah of Hafrashah - does so not because we learn it from a Pasuk, but as a Ma'alah (mid'Rabanan).
(b)Rebbi Yochanan's second statement, in which he learns the Parah Adumah from "La'asos" and Yom Kipur from "Lechaper" (just like we did at the beginning of the Sugya) - is not his personal opinion, but that of his Rebbi, Rebbi Yishmael.
(a)What problem does Resh Lakish have with the fact that Rebbi Yochanan learns Yom Kipur from the Milu'im, based on the Lashon of the Mishnah 'u'Maskinin Lo Kohen Acher'?
(b)What then, is Resh Lakish's source for the Mitzvah of Hafrashah on Yom Kipur?
(c)How does he learn it from the Pasuk in Yisro "Vayishkon Kevod Hash-m Al Har Sinai Vayechasehu he'Anan Sheshes Yamim Vayikra el Moshe ba'Yom ha'Shevi'i".
(d)But the Pasuk there says six days! Why does the Tana of our Mishnah say seven?
(a)Resh Lakish asks how Rebbi Yochanan can possibly learn Hafrashah from the Milu'im. Because if that is so, then just as everything by the Milu'im is Me'akev, everything by the Hafrashah of Yom Kipur will be Me'akev, too. Then why does the Mishnah write 'u'Maskinin Lo Kohen Acher', and not 'u'Mafrishin Lo Kohen Acher', implying that the stand-in did not require Hafrashah, and that, if the Kohen Gadol would become Tamei, he would serve without Hafrashah?
(b)Resh Lakish learns the Mitzvah of Hafrashah on Yom Kipur - from Sinai, from the Pasuk ...
(c)... "Vayishkon Kevod Hash-m Al Har Sinai Vayechasehu he'Anan Sheshes Yamim, Vayikra el Moshe ba'Yom ha'Shevi'i". The six days referred to here are the six days that the Cloud covered Moshe before he appeared before Hash-m, which (according to Resh Lakish) serve as a Binyan Av for anyone who wishes to enter the Kodesh Kodshim (i.e. the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur), who also required six days Hafrashah.
(d)Resh Lakish may well learn Hafrashah from Har Sinai - he does however admit that Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira disagrees, and the author of our Mishnah is Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira.