PESACHIM 12-15 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the sixth Yahrzeit of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rebbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study, which was so important to him, during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.


INCREASING THE TUMAH OF PESULIM (Yerushalmi Halachah 6 Daf 6a)

משנה ר' חנניה סגן הכהנים אומר מימיהן של כהנים לא נמנעו מלשרוף את הבשר שניטמא בוולד הטומאה עם בשר שניטמא באב הטומאה אע"פ שמוסיפין לו טומאה על טומאתו


(Mishnah - Rebbi Chananyah Segan HaKohanim): The Kohanim never refrained from burning meat that was made impure by a Vlad hatumah together with meat that was made impure by an Av hatumah, even though it was increasing its level of tumah.

גמרא בר קפרא אמר אב הטומאה דבר תורה. וולד טומאה מדבריהן


(Gemara - Bar Kafra): Av hatumah is from the Torah; the Vlad hatumah here is Rabbinic.

ר' יוחנן אמר בין זה בין זה דבר תורה


(Rebbi Yochanan): Both are from the Torah.

על דעתיה דבר קפרא ניחא. על דעתיה דר"י אב הטומאה עושה ראשון וולד טומאה עושה שני שני שנגע בראשון הרי הוא במקומו שני


Question: It rests well according to Bar Kafra (as the Mishnah taught, "even though it was raising its level of tumah", as it originally became a Vlad hatumah from the Torah). However, according to Rebbi Yochanan, an Av hatumah turns something into a rishon hatumah, and a Vlad hatumah turns something into a sheni. So a sheni that touched a rishon remains in its place (its level of tumah would not change)?

שהשלישי שנגע בראשון נעשה שני


Answer: As a shlishi that touched a rishon becomes a sheni.

תני בית שמאי אומרים אין שורפין בשר טהור עם בשר טמא וב"ה מתירין


(Beraisa): Beis Shammai say that one may not burn Tahor meat with Tamei meat and Beis Hillel permit it.

על דעתיה דבר קפרא ניחא שורפין פסול תורה עם פסול טומאת תורה. וצריכינן משמע טומאת דבריהן עם טומאת תורה. על דעתיה דר"י אם פסול תורה עם טומאת תורה שורפין כל שכן טומאת תורה עם טומאת תורה


Question: It rests well according to Bar Kafra (that Beis Hillel permit it) as one is burning a Torah pasul together with a pasul because of a Torah tumah and we learn (in the Mishnah from Rebbi Chanania Segan HaKohanim) that one may burn meat that has a Rabbinic tumah only, together with meat that has a Torah tumah. However, according to Rebbi Yochanan, if one may burn a Torah pasul with a Torah tumah, certainly one may burn a Torah tumah with a Torah tumah (so what is Rebbi Chanania teaching us)?!

ר' חנניה סגן הכהנים שנייה משם בית שמאי ובית הלל


Answer: Rebbi Chanania is teaching that both Beis Shammai and Beis Hillel agree to his case.

א"ר מנא קומי ר' יוסה על דעתיה דר"י ניחא דמר ר' יוחנן ששה ספיקות היו תולין עליהן ובאין ובאושא גזרו עליהן שריפה. ר' חנניה סגן הכהנים לא לקודם לאושא היה. וקודם לאושא לא היתה שריפה לדבריהן


Question (Rebbi Mana to Rebbi Yosa): It rests well according to Rebbi Yochanan, who said that the Vlad hatumah is from the Torah, as it is understandable that they would burn it. However, according to Bar Kafra it is problematic - Rebbi Yochanan said that there were six cases of safek (doubt) in which they would be Toleh (suspend the item i.e. not burn it) and in Usha they decreed to burn them. If, according to Bar Kafra, the Vlad hatumah is Rabbinic why did Rebbi Chanania burn it - surely Rebbi Chanania lived before the time of the decree in Usha?!

א"ל תיפתר שניטמא בכלי זכוכית


Answer (Rebbi Yosa): [Our Mishnah is discussing when] the meat became impure through a glass vessel. (The tumah of glassware is a Rabbinic tumah that proceeded Rebbi Chanania.)

א"ל אפי' תימר ניטמא בכלי זכוכית. לא כן אמר ר' זעירא ר' אבונה בשם ר' ירמיה יוסי בן יועזר איש צרידה ויוסי בן יוחנן איש ירושלם גזרו טומאה על ארץ העמים ועל כלי זכוכית. ר' יודא אמר יהודא בן טבאי ושמעון בן שטח גזרו על כלי מתכות הלל ושמאי גזרו על טהרת ידים


Objection (Rebbi Mana): Even if it was made Tamei by a glass vessel, RebbiZeira said in the name of Rebbi Yirmeyah that Yosi ben Yoezer Ish Tzraidah and Yosi ben Yochanan Ish Yerushalayim decreed tumah upon Chutz LaAretz and upon glassware. Rebbi Yuda said that Yehudah ben Tabai and Shimon be Shatach decreed tumah upon metal ware (that if they became Tamei and were melted down and re-formed, their tumah returns). Hillel and Shammai decreed tumah on hands (that they should be assumed to be a sheni letumah - even if there was no known tumah that touched them). (If glassware is listed here and one assumes that the entire list shares the same law, that one is Toleh rather than burning them, why did Rebbi Chanania burn the meat that had become Tamei through glassware?)

ר' ירמיה סבר מימר ארץ העמים וכלי זכוכית תלויה. ר' יוסי סבר מימר ארץ העמים תלויה וכלי זכוכית שריפה


Answer: It was only Rebbi Yirmeyah who held that one is Toleh items made impure by Chutz LaAretz or glassware. However, Rebbi Yosi disagreed and said that Rebbi Yosi ben Yoezer decreed that one is Toleh items made Tamei by Chutz LaAretz, but one burns items made Tamei by glassware.

אלו הן ששה ספקות


(Explaining the statement quoted in 1(i)): These are the six cases of safek -

על ספק בית הפרס


Beis Hapras (for example, if Terumah entered a Beis Hapras - a field in which the location of a grave was unknown).

על ספק ארץ העמים


Chutz LaAretz (as any soil there might have been used as a grave).

על ספק בגדי עם הארץ


The garments of an Am Haaretz (one who is not careful about the laws of tumah - perhaps his wife who was a nidah sat on the garments).

על ספק רוקק


Spit (perhaps it came from a zav, who's spit is Tamei)

על ספק מי רגלי אדם שהוא כנגד מי רגלי בהמה


Urine (perhaps it came from a zav. This concern applies even if there is evidence that it is not human urine, as it was found near urine of an animal).

על ודאי מגען שהוא ספק טומאתן


If foods certainly touched Terumah, but it is not known if they were Tamei or not.

על על אלו שורפין תרומה


These are the cases upon which they decreed in Usha that the Terumah requires burning.